Since its inception in Rio in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has held 23 Conferences of the Parties (COP). The COP21 in Paris, December 2015, is consensual a breakthrough in more than 25 years of debates and quarrels over climate change and global warming. COP21 calls on global players to reduce Global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions to limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, if not below 1.5 degrees Celsius by the end of the 21st century. To meet the challenge, the main recommendations of the agreement are: COP21 invites its member to propose a planned national contribution (NDC) in order to achieve its objectives, which are proportional to their administrative, economic and technological capabilities. NNCs must be measurable, reporting and verifiable (MRV). The NDCs should be reviewed every five years based on the knowledge and experience gained. Cop21 urges developed countries to help developing countries, developing countries, technologies, finance and know-how develop and implement their NDCs. The COP12 recommendations are not binding. The Islamic Republic of Iran has been a member of the UNFCCC since 1996. President H. Rouhani attended the Paris conference and promised to reduce Iran`s greenhouse gas emissions: a) voluntarily by 4% over the period 2020-30; (b) conditional on an additional 8% by 2050. The reference year for GHG reductions is 2010 on the basis of the BAU. The conditions for the reduction of 8% are the availability of financial and technological resources and the lifting of sanctions imposed on the country.
Again, the commitments are non-binding, as are all parties to the UNFCCC. A Working Group on Climate Change (WGCC) based at the Iranian Ministry of environment (DOE) is the link with the UNFCCC. The WGCC`s mission is to identify the Iranian NDC. A first draft of this document is now available to the public. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  The country said on Monday that it had begun using a new range of advanced centrifuges, a step that goes beyond a new frontier of the 2015 nuclear deal and brings Iran closer to building a nuclear bomb. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016.
If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019.   How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be tracked online continuously (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock).